RC cars have similar components to real cars, with one major exception: the ESC.
If you’re new to the hobby, you may be wondering what an ESC is and what it does for your RC car.
The electronic speed controller (ESC) is a crucial part of an RC car that controls the motor’s speed and direction. It receives signals from the car’s remote control and adjusts the power output accordingly. This enables the driver to control the car’s speed and direction accurately.
ESCs are found in RC cars with brushed and brushless motors, so let’s look at how they work and what they do.
What is an ESC in RC Cars?
When you provide power to a brushed or brushless RC car motor, it spins faster or slower depending on the amount of electrical current it has.
By itself, the motor cannot self-regulate its speed, so it will continue to spin at the same rate until the power is increased or decreased.
This is where the Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) comes in. The ESC is responsible for regulating the amount of power that goes to the motor and in turn, controlling the motor rotation.
When you adjust the throttle on your RC car transmitter, the ESC receives the signal and adjusts the current to the motor accordingly. If you give the motor more power, it will spin faster. If you give it less power, it will spin slower.
Without an ESC, an electric motor would spin at a fixed speed determined by the battery, and you would have no control over how fast you were going.
Additionally, the electronic speed controller also controls the direction of the motor. By reversing the polarity of the current, the motor spins in the opposite direction, stopping or reversing your RC car.
How Does an Electronic Speed Controller Work?
The amount of electrical current sent to the motor by the ESC is controlled by a process known as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).
At a high level, PWM allows the ESC rapidly switches the current on and off to the motor at a very high frequency, typically around 10,000 times per second or more.
The length of time the current is on versus off is referred to as the duty cycle. By changing the duty cycle, the ESC can control the amount of current sent to the motor.
For example, if the ESC provides power to the motor for 50% of the time, and the motor is spinning at approximately half its maximum speed. This is referred to as a 50% duty cycle.
If we increase the duty cycle to 75%, the ESC provides power to the motor for 75% of the time, spinning the motor faster.
This is what allows the ESC to control the speed and torque of the motor. The higher the current, the faster your RC car goes.
Other ESC Features in RC Cars
In addition to controlling speed and direction, the ESC can provide data to the driver.
Many ESCs have built-in monitoring systems that can provide information on the temperature of the motor and ESC, the battery voltage, and other critical metrics. This can be used to fine-tune your RC car’s performance to ensure it operates at peak efficiency.
While an Electronic Speed Controller’s primary function is to control the speed and direction of your RC car’s motor, there is a range of new ESC features as well.
Now let’s look at some of the ESC’s other uses:
Programmable settings in modern RC car electronic speed controllers can be a game-changer for drivers who want to fine-tune their RC car’s performance to match their driving style.
With programmable settings, you can adjust key parameters that affect the motor’s behavior and the RC car’s overall performance.
For example, depending on your driving style, you can adjust the power curve to make the motor more responsive or less responsive to throttle inputs.
You can also change the timing of the motor, which affects the amount of power delivered to the motor at different RPM ranges. By adjusting the timing, you can optimize the performance of the motor for high-speed runs or tight turns, depending on the track or terrain you’re driving on.
Or, you can adjust the braking settings to make the car more responsive or less responsive to braking inputs, allowing for greater control when stopping or slowing down for a turn.
You can also adjust other settings, such as the throttle profile, voltage cutoff, and motor direction.
Many high-performance ESCs allow you to adjust these settings on the fly, either through a combination of button presses on the ESC itself or through a connected smartphone app.
Programmable settings are a powerful tool to help you get the most out of your RC car and elevate your driving experience to the next level.
Low Voltage Protection for LiPo Batteries
Over-discharging a LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery can permanently damage it. Many ESCs are designed to detect whether you’re using a LiPo battery so they can automatically cut power to the motor before the voltage gets too low.
Many LiPo-compatible ESCs have built-in battery monitoring systems that allow you to track the voltage and temperature of the battery in real time. This can help you manage your battery usage and avoid over-discharging or overheating the battery.
LiPo-compatible ESCs are typically able to handle higher voltage and amperage levels. This helps provide a stable and consistent power supply to the motor.
Battery Eliminator Circuit (BEC)
A Battery Eliminator Circuit (BEC) allows the receiver and servo to be powered directly from the ESC instead of requiring a separate battery pack. This helps simplify your RC car’s wiring and reduces the overall weight and complexity of the system.
When a BEC is used, the voltage from the main battery pack is regulated and stepped down to a lower voltage that’s enough to power the receiver and steering servo.
In addition to the weight savings, the BEC helps ensure you still retain control of your vehicle’s steering servo even during full throttle.
Wrapping It Up
An Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) is arguably the most important component of your RC car. It regulates the amount of electrical current sent to the brushed or brushless motor and controls its speed, torque, and direction.
Modern electronic speed controllers have many advanced features, including programmable settings, telemetry options, and safety features. ESCs with a Battery Eliminator Circuit (BEC) feature can simplify wiring, reduce weight, improve efficiency, and enhance control of the RC car system.
Understanding how an ESC works and how to choose the right ESC for your RC car can significantly impact the overall performance and handling of the vehicle.
Whether you’re a beginner or a seasoned RC car enthusiast, investing in a quality ESC can make all the difference in taking your driving experience to the next level.